What is Minoxidil?
Minoxidil is an antihypertensive vasodilator drug commonly used for androgenetic alopecia.
Its mechanism of action is due to the premature transition to the anagen phase due to the shortening of telogen and the prolongation of the anagen phase.
The onset of the effect is at 4 months and the maximum is obtained after one year of treatment.
Its effectiveness by oral route is greater than in its topical form.
What adverse effects can it present and what is its management?
May produce telogen effluvium (Shedding effect). It occurs at the start of treatment due to premature passage to anagen and is self-limiting.
May produce irritative or allergic dermatitis with topical application due to the excipient propylene glycol.
It can cause headache due to local vasodilation. In this case, the frequency of application should be decreased in the case of the topical route or the dose should be decreased in the case of the oral route.
It can cause hypertrichosis. In this case, you can choose to decrease the frequency of application or dose. Other options may be epilation or the use of topical eflornithine.
It can exceptionally produce hypotension with oral administration. In this case, it is better to use it before sleeping or to decrease the dose.
Can it be used in pregnancy or lactation?
It has FDA category C, therefore its use should be avoided during pregnancy.
It is excreted in breast milk, yet the American Academy of Pediatrics considers it compatible with breastfeeding.
What are its forms of presentation?
We find it both topically and orally.
Topical: there are presentations both in solution and in foam, in concentrations ranging from 2 to 5%. 1 or 2 daily applications of approximately 1 ml are usually recommended. There is the possibility of formulating it with other active ingredients.
Oral: It is prepared in a masterful formulation. It is more effective than topical administration. The dose in men is 1 to 5 mg daily and in women 0.25 to 1 mg daily.
What are your profits?
Can be used in androgenetic alopecia, scarring alopecia, chronic telogen effluvium and alopecia areata.